GST Council may finalise e-way rules, fix anomalies tomorrow

New Delhi: The GST Council should lower the tax rate on Saturday in the works that are woven garments by 5 percent and set up a mechanism for online registration of property to a certain value before they can Be transported.

The Council, headed by Finance Minister Arun Jaitley, also take into account at its meeting the implementation of the new tax regime on goods and services (GST) from 1 July and will finalize a mechanism to implement anti-production Provisions To protect the interests of consumers.

The president of the Central Board of Special Taxes and Customs (CBEC), Vanaja Sarna, said that the movement of goods between states were disinfected with 25 of the 29 States that abolish checkpoints.

“About 25 states have abolished these checkpoints, so far, it has gone well,” he told PTI here.

This would strengthen the schedule after the electronic invoice in the GST, which would require the execution of all assets of more than Rs 50,000 in value before they can be registered online before being transferred.

“As the e-invoicing process for India is eliminated, we should be able to do something that will be better,” Sarna said.

However, it declined to comment on whether the electronic invoicing threshold would remain at Rs.50,000 or more in multi-quarter requests to lift it.

Officials said the rules for electronic billing will be decided on Saturday. This provision of the GST requires that any product of more than 50,000 rupees in value be pre-registered online before it can be moved.

According to the preliminary provision, GSTN generate electronic invoices that will be valid for 1 to 20 days, depending on the distance – one day for 100 km, 3 days (100 to less than 300 km), 5 days (300- minus 500 km) and 10 days (500-less than 1000 km).

The information technology platform for the electronic billing system is being developed by the National Computer Center.

Earlier this week, Finance Minister Arun Jaitley said it would be mandatory for manufacturers to pass the benefits of the tax reduction after the GST to consumers.

“What if the tax benefits of the inputs are not passed on to consumers? … We meet in a few days from now.

In a short time we will finalize the whole mechanism with regard to the fight against speculation, “he told parliament.

The Council should also take into account the lowest tax rates for garment manufacturing work at 5 percent to 18 percent, a senior official said.

At present, services related to textile yarns – other than synthetic or filamentary fibers – and fabrics attract 5% GST. Other clothing work attracts an 18 percent load.

The official said the council could consider rationing and bring all the work, including cloth clothing, under the slab of 5 percent.

In addition to the review of the GST implementation, the 19th Session of the Council, on Saturday examined the rationalization of the anomalies raised by the industry in a month, said an official, who would not be designated.

This will be the first full meeting of the GST Council, including representatives of the 29 states, following the implementation of the new indirect tax reform on July 1.

Hints of Skull Cult Found at World's Oldest Temple

Hints of Skull Cult Found at World’s Oldest Temple

Hints of Skull Cult Found at World’s Oldest Temple

There are about 10 000 years, the already marked presence of Gobekli Tepe in southeastern Turkey could have been even more impressive, since human skulls could have hung on what is considered the oldest temple in the world.

According to new research published in Science Advance, three fragments of Neolithic skulls discovered by archaeologists in Gobekli Tepe show a unique post-mortem type change in the skull at the site.

(More information about Gobekli Tepe, the “oldest temple in the world.”)

The deep and proposed linear grooves uniquely altered cranium ever seen in the world in any context, says Julia Gresky, lead author of the study and anthropologist at the German Archaeological Institute in Berlin.

A detailed analysis with a special microscope showed that the grooves were made deliberately with a flint tool. One of the fragments even a drilled hole, resembles skull changes made by the naga people of India who uses the hole to hang the skull in a chain.
Gobekli Tepe Finding what a focus on human heads suggests includes from left to right: a human statue intentionally beheaded, a figure carrying a human head as a gift and a pillar representing an individual without a bird’s head the right)

The marks may appear only on some bone fragments that are between 10 000 and 7000 years old, but archaeologists believe that this discovery is very important and means that the company, like many others in this part of the world time Was a “cult skull” who revered the human skull after death.

“Treatments of the skull are not rare in Anatolia,” said Gresky. She explained that the archaeological remains of other sites in the region indicate that people generally buried their dead, then exhumed, remove skulls and show them creatively.

Other archaeologists have even found that the Neolithic peoples form new faces of the dead with plaster.

(Look at the face behind the skull of Jericho at 9500 years old).

Gobekli Tepe was of particular importance to people living near the Neolithic. “It was not a settlement area, but especially the monumental structures,” says the anthropologist.

Boaty McBoatface Has Come Home From The Cold Abyss With 'Unprecedented Data'

Boaty McBoatface Has Come Home From The Cold Abyss With ‘Unprecedented Data’

Boaty McBoatface Has Come Home From The Cold Abyss With ‘Unprecedented Data’

Scientists collected “unprecedented data” on some of the coldest abysses of the ocean on Earth – through Boaty McBoatface.

The yellow submersible research vehicle has returned to their homes in the UK last week after their first voyage through the background water in Antarctica, capturing data on temperature, water flow velocity and low turbulence The water at the Orkney Pass.
Boaty, as it is known, got its name when the National Council for Environmental Research (NERC) has organized a contest to choose a new polar research vessel, which became viral internet when it tried to name “boaty McBoatface.”

NERC has tried to ignore the popular vote and go with the RRS Sir David Attenborough in honor of the broadcast type diffuser, but there was a public outcry. The plate has a little late to give its new robotic research submarine the popular name.

Boaty is currently part of a seven-week expedition in the Orkney flow pipeline dynamics. The Orkney Pass is a region of the Antarctic Ocean, which is about 4,000 meters deep and about 500 miles from the Antarctic Peninsula and represents some of the coldest abyssal waters on the planet.

“The Orkney Pass is a key point of impact on the flow of deep waters in which we expect the mechanism linking the changing winds in the warming waterworks abyssal.

Our goal is to learn enough about these complex processes to represent the (first) in the models that scientists use to predict how our climate will change in the 21st century and beyond, “said Professor Alberto Naveira Garabato of the University of Southampton, Chief scientist for the expedition, said in a statement.

“We have been able to collect large amounts of data that we have never been able to capture before because of the way Boaty (Long Range Autosub) can move underwater.

So far we have only been able to take measurements from a fixed point, but now we can get a much more detailed picture of what is happening in this very important underwater landscape. The challenge for us now is to analyze all this. ”

Boaty made three trips to depth during this part of the expedition, with the longest duration of three days.

It has traveled more than 180 km in the water that has reached temperatures below 0 ° C and current for a node while measuring the intensity of the turbulence. And it was not just sailing.

Asteroids Are Coming: Do You Know Where Your Children Are?

Asteroids Are Coming: Do You Know Where Your Children Are?

Asteroids Are Coming: Do You Know Where Your Children Are?

In fact, it is astéroïdo day happens Friday, June 30 and you want your children to pay attention. You too.

Really? As if climate change Brexit, Trump, North Korea, possible trade wars and all that was not enough, you have to worry about asteroids coming to the planet?

You are right. In fact, earlier this month, June 6, an Object Near Earth – NEO or as they are known – the size of a football field was as close to us as the Moon.

In April, another well-known JO25 2014 and about 2000 feet in diameter, the size of Gibraltar rock, approved by the planet at a relatively close distance of 1.1 million miles, approximately 4 1/2 times that of the Moon.

And as the asteroids approaching the ground several times a week, this was the largest since 2004.

These rocks – smaller and especially the parts of the formation of the universe (move their head around it) – are going to close several times a week and usually pose no threat to the Earth. On average, an asteroid the size of an automobile collides with Earth’s atmosphere every year, it burns in a spectacular fireball.

About 2 000 years ago, a football field asteroid hits the planet and damages.

There have been two major strikes in relatively recent times that show the power of the threat. More recently, on February 15, 2013, a 59-foot, 10,000-tonne meteor that moved around 40 by 000 mph exploded in a blinding flash 14 1/2 miles from Chelyabinsk, Russia. The people on the floor have felt their heat.

In the 20th century, the greatest known impact of human history was a meteorite or asteroid that exploded three to six miles above an area near the Tunguska River in Siberia, flattening about 770 square miles of forest. No human being hurt.

It was estimated between 200 and 620 feet in diameter. It is believed that energy equivalent to 1000 times that of the atomic bomb on Hiroshima fell.

Now consider this: attacking any meteor between 1 and 1 1/2 miles in diameter would have a global impact.

No more sweating? The meteor that hit the ground eventually erase dinosaurs and trigger mass extinctions, no more than six miles and has published about a billion times the energy of the Hiroshima bomb.

Trembling thoughts.

Tunguska NASA
The trees were felled by the Tunguska explosion. Photo of the Soviet expedition of 1927 Science Photo: NASA

The Tunguska incident took place on June 30, 1908. This is why the founders of the Asteroid Day were established on the same date every year worldwide to illuminate the dangers NEO can present to a world that was not enough to Map the location of the millions of NEOs in our solar system that have the potential to hit the planet and even the destruction of a city.

Specifically, only 10 000 were found – only 1%. This explains the “100x Declaration” signed by 40,000 citizens, including 200 scientists and cultural personalities in the world, including a multitude of astronauts, Nobel laureates, facilitators and entrepreneurs.

Best wireless router for multiple

Best wireless router for multiple devices which will give you multiuser experience

There are lots of Wireless Routers in the World by which people uses it download many Files, Photos, Music, Movies, Games, Videos, Stream Online Videos, Movies, play Online Games etc. It is essential for everyone as it connects you to the outer World by which you know everything going on in the World.

There are many users who want proper kind of Wireless Router which allows them to perform everything without any Issue. So there are lots of Wireless Routers which are specially designed for Multiple Devices and they are as follows:-

1) LINKSYS AC3200 TRI-BAND (EA9200) Wireless Router

Linksys AC3200 is a Popular Wireless Router in the Network Industry and it comes under the better type of Wireless Routers. Linksys is specially design for the Heavy use like multiple devices working at same time, gaming and for this reason, they have constructed this device with 2 High Powered 5GHz Bands which can be able to manage every kind of Load easily.

It has the facility of the 3 Internal as well as 3 External Antennas, the Signal and the Range of Frequency is great for gamers who totally rely on the fast speeds and Sharp Latency may provide them quite useful and better. It also has the facility of the Beamforming which is effective feature that provides awesome and much more consistent connection.


It is a new Product in the Networking Industry, but Asus Company has made much of Premium hardware for gamers and this Wireless Router is specially designed for serving advanced gamers and users with the Heavy usage of the Network. It works great with the help of Dual Bands as well as it also provides an awesome Range and Performance.

It also has a great feature of the cutting edge ASUSWRT which allows every user for fast setting up their Network or Customize their access to the Network and also it can be able to do it by any connected devices, not requiring a PC. It has the facility of the ASUS Ai Radar Technology which provides a Strong connection between the Wireless devices and the Router.


Lots of people may not know about this Wireless Router Series which is a great Router from NETGEAR Company and this Router is extended from the earlier version of Nighthawk X4 and now it is NETGEAR NIGHTHAWK X4S which is quite better than the previous version of X4 without any weaknesses in it. This NETGEAR Router is totally able to manage many of the devices at same time and it provides awesome performance in terms of Range, Speed and Consistency.

It has the facility of the AC Standard which supports all the Old and New Standards and if you are looking for Large Home for multiple devices, then this Wireless Router is better for you. It has the facility of the Antennas to generate better Frequency Range as well as the Wireless Router has 2.6 Gbps Total Network Speed.


It has made a great and designed Router which manages for grabbing the attention of lots of people with its great Red Color with the Looks of the Drone like Shape and it is quite massive Wireless Router with a total of 8 High powered Antennas. It is a great and better Router if the people are ready for spending some little bit extra Money and also the Router can be able to manage a Speed of 3.2 Gbps that can handle more than 50 devices at a time.

This Wireless Router can be quite better for any of the Big Home or Gaming Networks as well as the Beamforming Technology boosts up the Performance in a better way. It has the facility of the in-built 1GHz Dual Core Processor that is used to allow any device for managing the most difficult tasks easily.

Strange ‘sea pickles’ keep washing ashore in the Pacific Northwest — and scientists are baffled

Strange ‘sea pickles’ keep washing ashore in the Pacific Northwest — and scientists are baffled

Strange ‘sea pickles’ keep washing ashore in the Pacific Northwest — and scientists are baffled

There are strange sea creatures known as the “gherkin” invading the Pacific Northwest.

These gelatinous and slightly translucent bodies, called pyrosomes were seen together, sometimes thousands, near the northern shore of California to southeastern Alaska – obstructing fishing and lava nets on beaches according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

Experts say that this year creatures appear in large numbers outside the normal range of species.

More recently, the NBC Bay Area reported that sea dwellers have caused a stir in Monterey Bay, frustrating fishermen try to take salmon and shrimp.

What are pyrosomes, where do they come from, and why are they growing?

[Australian scientists have searched for deep creatures and took their nightmares instead]

NOAA Fisheries they described it this way:

The pyrosomes are pelagic tunics, which are part of Chordata, a cutting edge that includes humans. It is hard and sticky to the touch, with small protuberances pronounced. Inside the wall of this gelatinous tube that grows up to 60 cm, individual zooids are packed together.

These zooids have incurrente and excess siphon and the use of eyelashes for pumping water for feeding, breathing and movement. Using a network of mucus, they filter the water for small planktonic microorganisms.

Pyrosomes are known to accumulate in large clusters on the surface and bioluminesce zooides to create beautiful light screens.

Experts say that pyrosomes are found all over the world, usually in warm tropical waters in the sea away.

Ric Brodeur, a research biologist at the NOAA’s Northwest Fisheries Science Center in Newport, Oregon, said that the Oregon Beachcombers walked the beaches for decades but began making reports of washed-up pyhosomes on beaches only in the past. some months.

It was also at sea on research cruises since the 1980s and saw its first pyrosome in 2014. It is believed that great abundance is related to unusually warm oceanic conditions along the coastline that sees the natural habitat of pyrosomes .

Brodeur said it is too early to say if pyrosomes become permanent residents in the Pacific Northwest because the ocean could return to colder conditions.

“We will wait and see how it goes, but of course, this is not a good sign for the ecosystem to have these creatures out there instead of the normal prey of fish and shellfish, most of our fish, birds and mammals off our coast Are accustomed to, “he said.

“A city five minutes away from a Columbia research pipeline at the end of May generated approximately 60,000 pirosomes,” said the NOAA Northwest Science Center Fishery in a blog post. “Scientists have spent hours sorting the massive done to find the rare fish they were meant for.”

Researchers at NOAA Fisheries and researchers at Oregon State University and the University of Oregon studied these more marine creatures.

Solar Eclipse 2017: Alaska Airlines Flight Will Offer View Above the Clouds

Solar Eclipse 2017: Alaska Airlines Flight Will Offer View Above the Clouds

Solar Eclipse 2017: Alaska Airlines Flight Will Offer View Above the Clouds

Emphasizing the clouds prevents seeing the total solar eclipse that will come? A group of lucky astronomy fans can feel comfortable.

While the moon blocks the sun’s face on August 21, leaving only the bright crown in the sky, they watch 35,000 feet (10,700 meters) in the air aboard an Alaska Airlines charter flight.

“We are in a unique position to provide a unique experience for astronomy lovers,” said Sangita Woerner, Alaska Airlines vice president of marketing, in a press release. “Flying over the Pacific Ocean provide not only one of the first views, but also one of the best.”

The flight should take off from Portland International Airport in Oregon at 7:30 am local time on August 21.

This will lead to the Pacific coast early to see the total solar eclipse, the first to cross from coast to coast for 99 years. [What they will see during the total solar eclipse of 2017]

The airline does not sell tickets to its observation group. Seats are available only by invitation to a select group of astronomers and guests.

But Alaska Airlines give two seats as part of a marketing promotion from July 21, the company’s social media.

“We still do not know how many people are going to be on board,” Halley Knigge, an Alaska Airlines spokeswoman for, said in an e-mail.

“The plane has a capacity of 181 guests, but limit the seats available to provide an optimal viewing experience for people on board. It is safe to say that there will be less than 100 people on the flight, including crew.”

Alaska Airlines also offered a flight to eclipse last year, in which columnist Joe Rao, was a passenger. The video of that flight, shown below, was shot by Mike Kentrianakis with the American Astronomical Society.
During the eclipse of August 21, the moon will pass between the Sun and Earth, blocking the solar disk and leaving only its faint outer atmosphere visible. If time allows, millions of people can see how the shadow of the Moon (113 km) reached 14 states, beginning at 10 am PDT 15 (17 h 15 GMT) in Oregon and ending at 2:49 pm. EDT (1849 GMT) in South Carolina.

The trajectory of the whole is progressing rapidly. Even lucky airline passengers can follow the eclipse, which will cross the country, at speeds of up to 2,900 km / ha in western Oregon at 2,400 km / h near Charleston, South Carolina, according to an interactive Google map created by Eclipse of the French Xavier Eclipse Jubier, with the eclipse defense group of the International Astronomical Union.

Incredible New Observation Shows Supermassive Black Holes Orbiting Each Other

Incredible New Observation Shows Supermassive Black Holes Orbiting Each Other

Incredible New Observation Shows Supermassive Black Holes Orbiting Each Other

Do you think our galaxy is special? Ha. Our drilling roll of gas and dark matter could be a good place for humans.

But within hundreds of light years, there is an elliptical galaxy, Galaxy 0402 + 379, that supermassive black holes are orbiting just 24 or more years of light. Their combined weight is about 15 billion times that of our sun.

If not convinced, a team led by scientists at the University of New Mexico has actually detected black holes moving relative to each other using the Very Long Baseline Array, a system of ten radio telescopes in the United States, with locations in Hawaii And the Caribbean.

Not only is it the first direct measurement of the galactic centers orbiting that way, but it was a difficult calculation to realize.

One of the study’s authors, Roger Romani of Stanford University, told Gizmodo: “I think it’s a tour de force technique to measure such movement in the sky,” a-t said. “It took me ten years of measurement with the largest telescope network on earth.”

These black holes are large, probably a few thousand times more massive than the monster in the center of the Milky Way, Sagittarius A *. They are probably the result of a set of fused galaxies, according to Romani.

And although they are 24 light-years away, it’s actually a very narrow range in regards to the orbit of black holes. “Two approaching black holes are quite exceptional,” he said. Even so, it would take about 30,000 years for the giants to complete a full orbit. The researchers published the results in The Astrophysical Journal.
Capturing a movement of this type of distant sources in the sky requires using the VLBA, a radio telescope set up to perform very long base interferometry or VLBI.

In essence, the Earth itself is transformed into a telescope, but instead of focusing light on a mirror as a simple telescope, light is captured on individual radio telescopes and the focus is by comparing the information contained in supercomputers . These types of observations allow researchers to solve very remote but relatively important things.

Other researchers were delighted to observe. “This is an absolutely wonderful result.This is a very convincing proof of what would be the first binary black hole known visual observed supermassive,” meaning a pair of very solid black holes that can be solved separately with a light telescope Grant Tremblay, an astrophysicist at Yale University and Harvard Gizmodo.

“It will be very convincing target tracking for years to come.” Romani emphasized that studying binary black holes like these could help understand how black holes are joining in the center of large galaxies.

Another astronomer Sarah Spolaor at the University of West Virginia explains how these binary black holes are hard to find and none of the candidates is not completely confirmed (though this one). She always thought this observation was exciting.

“Its target source 0402 + 379 … is one of the most credible candidates for a number of reasons, perhaps one of the highlights is that it has actually been” photographed “and we can see the material clearly mark the two holes Blacks, “he said.

“Therefore, the discovery of the orbital motion at 0402 + 379 would be a dream come true for many,” and perhaps one day scientists may be able to make a video on the radio waves of orbiting black holes.

He emphasized that “the orbital movement is not the only possible explanation of what they saw,” Romani said. You will feel more confident after taking more data for longer. Or maybe they can find another pair in orbit.

New computer virus spreads from Ukraine to disrupt world business

New computer virus spreads from Ukraine to disrupt world business

New computer virus spreads from Ukraine to disrupt world business

A computer virus that wreak havoc on companies around the world Wednesday, while stretching to more than 60 countries, which alters the ports from Mumbai to Los Angeles and disrupted work in a chocolate factory in Australia.

Cyence risk modeling company said the economic losses of the attack this week and last month of a virus called WannaCry probably exceeded 8 billion. This assessment highlights the enormous strengths of companies worldwide to meet the growing cyber attacks that hit critical offline computer networks.

“When systems are down and they can not generate revenue, it really attracts leaders and board members,” said George Kurtz, chief executive of security software maker CrowdStrike. “This has made it easier to understand the need for resiliency and improved security in networks.”

The virus, the researchers call Petia or GoldenEye, began spreading in Ukraine Tuesday. It infected the computers of visitors on a local news website and computers have downloaded contaminated updates a popular package of tax accounting, according to national police and cyber experts.

A cargo reservation system was closed at the Danish shipping giant A. P. Moller-Maersk (MAERSKb.CO), causing traffic jams in some of the 76 ports in the world managed by its APM subsidiary terminals …

Maersk said on Wednesday that the system was online again: “The booking confirmation will take a little longer than usual, but we are happy to carry your cargo,” he said on Twitter.

The US FedEx delivery provider said its TNT division had been significantly affected by the virus, which has also moved to South America, which affects Argentine ports operated by China Cofco.

The malicious code encrypted data on machines and required victims of the $ 300 rescue for recovery, similar to the extortion tactics used in the general ransomware of attack WannaCry in May.

Security experts said they believed the aim was to disrupt computer systems in Ukraine, not extortion, claiming that the attack uses powerful cleaning software that made it impossible to recover lost data.

“It was a disguised ransomware broom. They do not intend to get money against the attack,” said Tom Kellermann, CEO of Ciber Ventures, strategic.
The malware appears to use code known as the “eternal blue” that was developed by the US National Security Agency.

Eternal Blue was part of a stolen toolkit from the NSA piracy and was leaked on the Internet in April by a group called Shadow Runners, which security researchers believe is related to the Russian government.

This attack has been pointed out by NSA critics who say the agency puts the public at risk by keeping information about software vulnerabilities secret so it can be used in cyber operations.

The United States representative, Ted location, a Democrat, on Wednesday asked the NSA to immediately reveal any information he might have in eternal blue that would help to stop the attacks.

“If the NSA has a killer switch to this new malware attack, the NSA must implement it now,” Lugar said in a letter to NSA director Mike Rogers.

The NSA did not respond to a request for comment and has not publicly acknowledged that it has developed hacking tools made known by Shadow Brokers.

The target of the campaign looked like Ukraine, an enemy of Russia, that underwent two cyber attacks in its electrical network that attributed to Moscow.

ESET, a Slovakian cyber security software company, said that 80 percent of infections detected among its global customers were in Ukraine, followed by Italy with 10 percent.

Ukraine has repeatedly accused Moscow of organizing cyber attacks on its computer networks and infrastructure since Russia annexed Crimea in 2014.

The Kremlin has denied the charges, said on Wednesday it had no information on the source of the attack, which also affected Russian companies, including oil company Rosneft (ROSN.MM) and a steel mill.

With a Better Brain, Curiosity Mars Rover Picks Its Own Targets

With a Better Brain, Curiosity Mars Rover Picks Its Own Targets

With a Better Brain, Curiosity Mars Rover Picks Its Own Targets

The Curiosity Mars Rover is now smart enough to choose its own exploration targets, according to a new study.

The secret of Curiosity’s best brain was a software update sent to the ground in October 2015, called Stand-Alone Exploration to Collect Enhanced Science (AEGIS).

This was the first time that artificial intelligence had been tested on a remote probe, and the results showed that similar AI techniques could be applied to future missions, according to NASA scientists working on the project.

AEGIS allows the rover to be “trained” to identify rocks with certain characteristics that field scientists want to investigate. This is valuable because human Curiosity controllers can not be in direct contact with the mobile all the time.

Instead of waiting for instructions to “go there and sample this piece of rock”, Curiosity can now search for goals, even if it is not in contact with its human controllers, according to a new study that describes Curiosity use of the software.

“We can not be in constant contact with the rover – Mars turns and when [Curiosity is] on the opposite side, we can not get in touch with him,” said Raymond Francis, senior system engineer for the deployment of AEGIS . .com.

According to the study, once the AEGIS system was deployed, it was used 54 times between May 13, 2016 and April 7, 2017. Without intelligent targeting, curiosity could be expected to reach a goal Scientists are interested in about 24% time; With AEGIS, the rover managed 93 percent, according to the study.

Even when the rover is in contact, signals from Earth to Mars take the time to get there and come back. In May 2016, Mars was the closest it came from Earth in 11 years – 46.8 million miles.

A radio signal would take a little more than 4 minutes to get there and four more to come back. So if there are planetary scientists who want to take a closer look, it may take some time to send the orders.

Inactive time is often lost for mission rover time, and because sending a robot to Mars is expensive and difficult, it’s not ideal. A few hours hanging around each day may not seem like much, but it adds up during an entire mission.

With AEGIS, the rover could lead to a location, select investigative targets and collect data while waiting for radio contact with the Earth again. This means that terrestrial scientists are free to choose a new target once they re-establish contact with the rover.

For the study, the NASA team formed Curiosity, with the AEGIS software, to analyze the pedestal in a function called the Murray Formation after each training. The Murray Formation is a rocky outcrop with characteristic bands of stones, possibly laid by lakes of liquid water.

One question scientists wanted to answer was whether the chemical composition of the Murray Formation changed over time, as this might reveal changes in water chemistry, disclosing more about the history of water on Mars.